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**Measures of Central Tendency**

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**Introduction Three measures of central tendency**

All three summarize an entire distribution of scores By describing the most typical, central, or representative value of that distribution So, they reduce large data sets by describing them using just a few numbers All three define typical in different ways

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**Applications Nominal Variables Ordinal Variables Interval Variables**

Mode Median Mean

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**Mode This is the value or score that occurs most frequently**

For example, scores on the first exam: 35, 36,36,37,38,39 The modal scores on the exam is 36 It tells you that more people received that score than any other

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**Uses for the Mode The mode has two uses**

A “quick and easy” indicator of typical scores When you are working with nominal-level variables

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**Limitations of the Mode**

Some distributions have no mode at all, or so many that the statistic loses its meaning For example, if there were an equal number of males and females, there is no mode The second limitation is when you report the mode for ordinal or interval-ratio data, the modal score may be far from the center, so it gives very little information So, you need other clues to complete the picture

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Median The median represents the exact center of a distribution of scores It is the score of the case having half the cases above it and half below it After all the cases have been ordered from low to high In 2009, the median per capita income was $26,178; the median household income was $50,007, what does that tell you? So, the median is the score associated with the central or middle case

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Median When the number of cases (N) is odd, the median is the middle case But when the number of cases (N) is even, the median is the average of the two middle scores For a large sample, there is a formula for finding the position of the median, but the median is the score that occupies that position The formula for the position is N + 1 divided by 2 So for the above example, N = 7, so the position is 8/2=4 The median is the number occupying the fourth position

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Median If N is even, you still use the formula N+1/2 to find the position For the above example with a 21 added to the end 2,4,5,9,14,18,20, N = 8 So, divided by 2 = 4.5 The median will be the number between 9 and 14 Add and divide by 2 to find the average between the two scores The median will be 23/2 = 11.5 If the two middle cases are the same score, the median is that number The median cannot be calculated for variables measured at the nominal level, because they cannot be ordered or ranked, so there is no middle

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**Percentiles and Quartiles**

Introduced here because it is similar to the median, before going on to the last measure of central tendency Percentiles A percentile identifies the point below which a specific percentage of cases fall If you have a percentile score on an exam of 82, it means that 82% of the people taking that exam scored lower than you did The median is the 50th percentile

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**Percentiles To find a position associated with a percentile:**

Multiply the number of cases (N) by the proportional value of the percentile For example, 46th percentile = .46 The resultant value identifies the number of the case that occupies that percentile score Example to find raw score in 90th percentile If N = 150, we want the 90th percentile score Will multiply 150 by .90 = 135 If we order the cases from lowest to highest, the 135th person would have a percentile score of 90, and whatever their raw score was, it would have 90% of people below that score

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**Quartiles Quartiles divide the distribution into quarters**

So, the first quartile is the 25th percentile Computers will report the score occupying the first quartile, the median, and the score occupying the third quartile To interpret, 50% of all the people surveyed fell between the first quartile and the third quartile Since they occupy the 25% position, and the 75% position, there are 50% of the scores between them Another reason why they are reported, is to eliminate the extreme

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**Mean The mean is the arithmetic average**

It is the most commonly used measure of central tendency To compute the mean, add up the scores and then divide by the number of scores (N) You should always look at the mean to see if it is a reasonable statistic given the data with which you began Also a good idea to do all of the math twice

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**Interpretation of the Mean**

What, exactly, happens every time we divide by N If you substituted the mean for each of the six scores, and added them together, will get the same total

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**Characteristics of the Mean**

The mean is generally more reliable than the median or the mode It will vary less among samples drawn from the same population, if you keep drawing more samples Second, the mean is the point around which all the scores cancel out Third characteristic of the mean is expressed in the statement: if the differences between the scores and the mean are squared and then added, the resultant sum will be less than the sum of the squared differences between the scores and any other point in the distribution The mean is closer to all of the scores than the other measures of central tendency

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**Characteristics of the Mean**

The fourth characteristic of the mean is that it is affected by every score in the distribution The mode and the median are not as much affected Advantage of this: The mean uses all available information—every score in the distribution affects the mean Disadvantage When a distribution has a few extreme cases, the mean becomes a very misleading measure of central tendency, especially with a small sample

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Skewness The mean is always pulled in the direction of extreme scores, if they are only on one end (low or high) The mean, median, and mode will only be the same when a distribution is symmetrical When a distribution has some extremely high scores (a positive skew) the mean will have a greater value than the median If the distribution has some very low scores (a negative skew), the mean will be lower in value than the median

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**Two Reasons for Comparing the Mean to the Median**

Gives you a quick way to determine if a distribution is skewed, and tells you in which direction (since you don’t see the raw data) It gives people a simple way to “lie” with statistics for example, income is usually positively skewed (skewed to the right), so the mean will be higher than the median, since the extreme scores are the small percentage of people making over $300,000 per year So, the Chamber of Commerce may report the mean income to give the impression the community is wealthier than it really is You would be interested in the median income if you were going to open a business in the community, since your shoppers would be average people, not the wealthy As a researcher, you should report both numbers, and let the reader decide which to use

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